Wages: $15/hr

Summary: The percentage of full-time wage and salary workers ages 25-64 earnings at least $15 per hour (in 2017 dollars). Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All civilian noninstitutional full-time wage and salary workers ages 25-64.

Methods: The share of workers earning at least $15/hour was calculated by race/ethnicity, education, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. Before calculating the share of workers earning at least $15/hours, earnings for each year were adjusted for inflation to reflect 2017 dollars (using the CPI-U from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income and work efforts from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Wages: Median

Summary: The median hourly wage for full-time wage and salary workers ages 25-64 (in 2017 dollars). Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017). 

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All civilian noninstitutional full-time wage and salary workers ages 25-64.

Methods: The median hourly wage was calculated by race/ethnicity, education, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. Values were then adjusted for inflation to reflect 2017 dollars (using the CPI-U from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income and work efforts from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Poverty

Summary: The percentage of the population living below the indicated federal poverty threshold based on their family income, size, and composition. The federal poverty threshold in 2017 for a family of four with two children was about $25,000 per year (thus, 200% of the federal poverty threshold was about $50,000). Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All people form whom poverty status is determined (excludes group quarters).

Methods: The percentage of people below the federal poverty level (and 150 and 200 percent of the federal poverty level) was calculated by race/ethnicity, age, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. The dollar value of the federal poverty level varies by family size and compositon. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Working poor

Summary: The percentage of all workers ages 25-64 who are "working poor," defined as both (1) working full-time and (2) having a family income below the indicated federal poverty threshold based on family size and composition. The federal poverty threshold in 2017 for a family of four with two children was about $25,000 per year (thus, 200% of the federal poverty threshold was about $50,000).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: The civilian noninstitutional population ages 25-64 not living in group quarters who worked at all during the year prior to the survey.

Methods: The percent working poor was calculated by race/ethnicity, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. The dollar value of the federal poverty level varies by family size and compositon. Calculations were made using three different definitions of "poor" based on ratios of family income income to the federal poverty level (below 100, 150, and 200 percent). See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income and work efforts from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Unemployment

Summary: The unemployment rate for working-age population (25-64). The unemployment rate is the number of people who are out of work divided by the number who are in the labor force, defined as working or actively seeking employment (over the last four weeks). Data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: The civilian noninstitutional population ages 25-64.

Methods: The unemployment rate was calculated by race/ethnicity, education, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. The unemployment rate is the number of people who are out of work divided by the number who are in the labor force, defined as working or actively seeking employment (over the last four weeks). See the methodology page for other relevant notes. 

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income and work efforts from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Income growth

Summary: Average annual earned income for full-time wage and salary workers ages 25-64, and real (inflation-adjusted) earned income growth over time, by percentile. Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017). 

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: Civilian noninstitutional full-time wage and salary workers ages 25-64.

Methods: Average annual earned income percentiles were estimated for full-time wage and salary workers ages 25 through 64 in each year and geography. Values were then adjusted for inflation to reflect 2017 dollars (using the CPI-U from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics) before growth rates over time were calculated. Income percentiles are the point in the income distribution below which a given percent of workers fall. For example, if the 20th percentile income value is $23,000, that means that 20 percent of workers earn less than that amount. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income and work efforts from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Income inequality

Summary: Annual household income at the 95th and 20th percentiles (in 2017 dollars), and the ratio of the 95th to the 20th percentile (the 95/20 ratio). A household income percentile is a level of income below which a given percentage of households fall. For example, 95 percent of households earn below the 95th percentile and 20 percent of households earn below the 20th percentile. The 95/20 ratio is a useful measure of income inequality, with a higher ratio indicating greater inequality. Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980 5% State Sample, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All households.

Methods: Household income at the 95th and 20th percentiles were estimated for all households in each year and geography, and the ratio of the 95th to the 20th percentile was calculated. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Data for 1980 through 2000 are based on surveys in those years but reflect income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Homeownership

Summary: The percentage of households that are owner-occupied. Data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017). 

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1990 5% Sample, 2000 5% Sample, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All households.

Methods: The rate of homeownership was calculated by race/ethnicity, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.

Business ownership

Summary: The number of firms per 100 persons in the labor force ages 16 or older and growth in the number of firms. Firms are classified by race/ethnicity and gender based on the self-identification of the majority owner. With the exception of Whites, all racial groups include people of Hispanic origin who self-identify with that racial identity.

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 and 2012 Survey of Business Owners, 2009 and 2014 American Community Survey 5-year Summary Files.

Universe: Firms include all nonfarm businesses filing Internal Revenue Service tax forms as individual proprietorships, partnerships, or any type of corporation, and with receipts of $1,000 or more.

Methods: Data on the number of firms by firm type (firms with paid employees and sole proprietorships), industry, and race/ethnicity and gender of the proprietor was collected from the 2007 and 2012 Survey of Business Owners (SBO) for all Atlas geographies. To be consistent across breakdowns and cuts by race/ethnicity and gender, firm counts for all breakdowns were restricted to firms classifiable by race, gender, and veteran status. A single firm may be tabulated in more than one racial/ethnic group category. This can result because the sole owner was reported to be of more than one race, the majority owner was reported to be of more than one race, or a majority combination of owners was reported to be of more than one race. The denominator used to calculate the number of firms per 100 persons in the labor force age 16 or older by race/ethnicity and gender was merged in from the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year summary file for the 2007 SBO data, and the 2014 ACS 5-year summary file for the 2012 SBO data. These two samples of the ACS summary file were chosen because the central year of each five-year pool aligns with the year of the SBO data (e.g. the central year of the 2014 5-year ACS, which covers years 2010-2014 is 2012). With the exception of Whites, all racial groups tablulated in the SBO include people of Hispanic origin who self-identify with that racial identity. Data on the number of people in the labor force age 16 or older by race/ethnicity and gender from the ACS follows the same racial classification. Estimates for small geographies and/or demographic groups are often not reported because the data does not meet SBO publication standards. Firm growth between 2007 and 2012 reflects the percentage change in the number of firms over the period. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes: 

  • With the exception of Whites, all racial groups include people of Hispanic origin who self-identify with that racial identity.
  • Data for Asian or Pacific Islanders reflects only the Asian population (i.e. it excludes Pacific Islanders).
  • Data for the mixed/other racial/ethnic group only includes data persons identifying as other single race alone, not covered by the categories delineated by the surveys (and not mixed race).
  • No data on the number of firms per 100 workers (i.e. persons in the labor force age 16 or older) are reported if the calculated rate came out to more than 100 or if there are fewer than 1,000 workers in the denominator.
  • No data on the firm growth are reported if there are fewer than 30 firms in either year (2007 or 2012).
  • Total firm counts for all breakdowns are restricted to firms classifiable by race, gender, and veteran status.

Business revenue

Summary: The average annual receipts per firm (in 2012 dollars) and growth in receipts per firm. Firms are classified by race/ethnicity and gender based on the self-identification of the majority owner. With the exception of Whites, all racial groups include people of Hispanic origin who self-identify with that racial identity. 

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 2007 and 2012 Survey of Business Owners.

Universe: Firms include all nonfarm businesses filing Internal Revenue Service tax forms as individual proprietorships, partnerships, or any type of corporation, and with receipts of $1,000 or more.

Methods: Data on aggregate revenues and the number of firms by firm type (firms with paid employees and sole proprietorships), industry, and race/ethnicity and gender of the proprietor was collected from the 2007 and 2012 Survey of Business Owners (SBO) for all Atlas geographies. Average annual revenues per firm was calculated by dividing aggregate revenues by the number of firms, and values for 2007 were adjusted for inflation to reflect 2012 dollars (using the CPI-U from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). To be consistent across breakdowns and cuts by race/ethnicity and gender, revenues and firm counts for all breakdowns were restricted to firms classifiable by race, gender, and veteran status. A single firm may be tabulated in more than one racial/ethnic group category. This can result because the sole owner was reported to be of more than one race, the majority owner was reported to be of more than one race, or a majority combination of owners was reported to be of more than one race. Estimates for small geographies and/or demographic groups are often not reported because the data does not meet SBO publication standards. Growth in average annual revenue per firm between 2007 and 2012 reflects the real (i.e. inflation-adjusted) percentage change average annual revenue over the period. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes: 

  • With the exception of Whites, all racial groups include people of Hispanic origin who self-identify with that racial identity.
  • Data for Asian or Pacific Islanders reflects only the Asian population (i.e. it excludes Pacific Islanders).
  • Data for the mixed/other racial/ethnic group only includes data persons identifying as other single race alone, not covered by the categories delineated by the surveys (and not mixed race).
  • No data on revenue growth are reported if there are fewer than 30 firms in either year (2007 or 2012).
  • Revenues per firm for all breakdowns are restricted to firms classifiable by race, gender, and veteran status.

Job and wage growth

Summary: The net percentage change in jobs and earnings per worker by wage level category. Industries were grouped into three categories (low, middle, and high) by average annual earnings per worker in 1990, and measures of growth in jobs and earnings per worker were calculated for each category over time. Earnings growth is adjusted for inflation.

Data Source(s): U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW); Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 2019 Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source.

Universe: Private-sector jobs covered by state unemployment insurance laws (about 95 percent of all U.S. private-sector jobs). 

Methods: Using 1990 as the base year, broad private-sector industries (at the two-digit NAICS level) were classified into three wage categories: low-, medium-, and high-wage industries. An industry’s wage category was based on its average annual wage, and each of the three categories contained approximately one-third of all private two-digit NAICS industries in each Atlas geography. The 1990 industry wage-category classification was applied across all the years in the dataset, so that the industries within each category remained the same over time. The percentage change in the number of jobs and in average earnings per worker were then calculated. Earnings values were adjusted for inflation to 2018 dollars (using the CPI-U from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics) prior to calculating earnings growth. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Earnings growth is in real terms (adjusted for inflation).
  • No data is available for cities.

Job and GDP growth

Summary: Compound annual growth rate of jobs and gross domestic product (GDP) over the indicated period. GDP measures the dollar value of all goods and services produced in the region, and its growth rate is adjusted for inflation. 

Data Source(s): U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Gross Domestic Product by State, Gross Domestic Product by Metropolitan Area, CA30: regional economic profile.

Universe: All public- and private-sector jobs.

Methods: Compound annual growth rates in the number of jobs and GDP was calculated over two time periods, 1990-2007 and 2009-2017. These periods were selected to roughly capture economic growth before and after the Great Recession. GDP values were adjusted for inflation to reflect 2017 dollars (using the CPI-U from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics) before growth rates over time were calculated. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes: 

  • GDP growth is in real terms (adjusted for inflation).
  • No data is available for cities.