Automation risk: All workers should enjoy economic security as technology changes the way work is done.

Insights & Analyses

  • Nationwide, 51 percent of job tasks across all industries can be automated. This means that 78.5 million jobs are at risk of being automated.
  • The industries with the greatest vulnerability to automation include accommodation and food services, administrative and waste management services, real estate, retail trade, and transportation and warehousing. More than 60 percent of job tasks in these industries can be automated and approximately 31 million jobs are likely to be impacted.

  • Latinx immigrant workers face the highest level of automation risk at 66 percent. Comparatively, white immigrant workers face an average automation risk of 43 percent.

  • Jobs requiring no more than a high school diploma are most vulnerable to automation, with an average risk of 80 percent. This rate drops to 20 percent among jobs requiring a bachelor’s degree.

Drivers of Inequity

Major technological advancements throughout history have altered the way work gets done, shaping markets, occupations, and industries by making certain jobs obsolete, changing and expanding others, and creating entirely new roles across industries and fields. However, not all workers and occupations are impacted equally. Historical practices, such as racial segregation and policies that banned women and people of color from accessing education and higher-paid professions, and ongoing factors like biased hiring practices, inadequate childcare support, and disparities in wealth have forced historically marginalized people into occupations that are undervalued and vulnerable to automation and computerization. Without strong policies to protect the interests of workers, the tremendous wealth generated by technological innovations has been inequitably concentrated, exacerbating racial and economic inequalities.


Grow an equitable economy: Policies to reach full employment for all

Strategy in Action

Per Scholas is a national organization that works to advance economic equity by providing no-cost training for technology careers. Operating in more than 20 locations across the nation, Per Scholas partners with tech employers, policymakers, and community-based organizations to create tech career pathways for its program participants and support increased diversity in the tech sector. In addition to focusing on hands-on technical skills development, its curriculum includes professional skills learning to prepare job seekers for success in the labor market. In 2021, 84 percent of the organization’s program participants were people of color, and a third were women. To date, more than 16,000 people have graduated from Per Scholas’ training program. The latest figures indicate that 80 percent of its graduates find full-time jobs within a year, with an average starting wage of $21 per hour. Read more.


Photo: Per Scholas

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