Stockton boosts incomes through unconditional cash payments. Through the Stockton Economic Empowerment Demonstration (SEED), 125 residents in neighborhoods in Stockton, California, in which the median household income is at or below $46,000 began receiving a monthly, unconditional $500 payment for 18 months. Stockton is a diverse, high-poverty city that often experiences a higher unemployment rate than the rest of the state. Throughout the project, researchers are collecting data on who is participating, how they spend their money, and how the additional income is affecting their lives. While critics argued recipients would spend the cash on addictive substances and luxury items, researchers announced that, so far, about 40 percent of payment funds have gone to food, 25 percent to merchandise, and 12 percent to utilities. The remainder of the study's findings will likely be announced in 2021 after the pilot is completed. Learn more.