Race/ethnicity

Summary: The composition of the population by race/ethnicity. Data for 2017 represents a 2013-2017 average. Population projections are not available for cities.

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 Decennial Census Summary Files, 2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Summary File, 2017 National Population Projections; Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 2019 Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The composition of the population by race/ethnicity was calculated by age for each year and geography. Projections of the racial/ethnic composition are based on a combination of initial county-level projections from Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., and national projections from the U.S. Census Bureau. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups are non-Hispanic.
  • Much of the increase in the mixed/other population between 1990 and 2000 is due to a change in the survey question on race.
  • Data for 2017 represents a 2013-2017 average.

Nativity and ancestry

Summary: The composition of the population by race/ethnicity, nativity, and ancestry. Data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2013-2017).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1990 and 2000 5% samples, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The total population and percentage population were calculated by race/ethnicity, nativity and ancestry for each year and geography from microdata samples using appropriate survey weights. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.
  • No data are reported in the by ancestry breakdown if based on fewer than 50 individual (i.e. unweighted) survey respondents.
  • No data are reported in breakdowns other than by ancestry if based on fewer than 50 individual (i.e. unweighted) survey respondents.

People of color

Summary: The percentage of the population that does not identify as non-Hispanic white.

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 Decennial Census Summary Files, 2017 National Population Projections; Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 2019 Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The percentage of people of color was calculated for each year and geography. Projections of the racial/ethnic composition are based on a combination of initial county-level projections from Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., and national projections from the U.S. Census Bureau. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • No data are shown for cities because demographic projections are unavailable. 

Population growth

Summary: The net change in population and the share of net population growth attributable people of color and immigrants. Shares of net population growth attributable to people of color (immigrants) are restricted to range between 0 and 100 percent and are not reported if there was a net decline in both the White population and the population of color (immigrant population and U.S.-born population).

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 Decennial Census Summary Files, 2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Summary File, 2017 National Population Projections; Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1980, 1990, and 2000 5% samples, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples; Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., 2019 Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The actual and projected population growth attributable to people of color and immigrants was calculated for each year and geography. Projections of the racial/ethnic composition are based on a combination of initial county-level projections from Woods & Poole Economics, Inc., and national projections from the U.S. Census Bureau. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups are non-Hispanic.
  • Shares of net population growth attributable to people of color (immigrants) are restricted to range between 0 and 100 percent and are not reported if there was a net decline in both the White population and the population of color (immigrant population and U.S.-born population).
  • Projected data is not available for cities.

Racial generation gap

Summary: The racial generation gap is defined as the difference in the percentage people of color between the youth (under age 18) and senior (age 65 or older) populations. Data for 2017 represents a 2013-2017 average.

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 Decennial Census Summary Files, 2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Summary File.

Universe: All people under age 18, and all people age 65 and over.

Methods: Care was taken to generate consistent estimates of people by race/ethnicity and age group (under 18, 18–64, and over 64 years of age) for the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010, at both the city and county levels. The county-level estimates were then aggregated to generate estimates at the regional, state, and U.S. levels.

For 2000 and 2010, data on the number of people by race/ethnicity and age is readily available in SF1 of the Census in categories that are consistent with the six broad racial/ethnic groups detailed in the Atlas; however, this is not entirely the case for 1980 and 1990. Estimates for these years had to be made to ensure consistency over time, utilizing two different Census summary files from each year. The estimates were necessary because while all data reported in the Atlas (unless otherwise noted) treat “Hispanic or Latino” as one of six broad mutually exclusive racial/ethnic groups (with all other groups excluding people of Hispanic or Latino origin), the U.S. Census Bureau considers “Hispanic or Latino” an ethnicity and not a race, and often reports data only for groups defined by single race alone (e.g., “White alone,” “Black alone”) which includes people of Hispanic or Latino origin.

For 1980, after combining data from STF1 and STF2, information on total population by race/ethnicity for all ages combined was available at the city and county levels for all of the six requisite groups, but race/ethnicity by age was only available for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and the remainder of the population. To estimate the number non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders, non-Hispanic Native Americans, and non-Hispanic Others among the remainder for each age group, we applied the distribution of these three groups from the overall city and county populations (across all ages) to that remainder. So, for example, if non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islanders were 20 percent of the combined non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic Native American, and non-Hispanic Other populations of all ages in a particular city or county, we assumed that the same was true within each of the three age categories (under 18, 18–64, and over 64).

For 1990, the level of detail available in the underlying data differed at the city and county levels, calling for different estimation strategies. At the county level, data by race/ethnicity was taken from STF2A, while data by race/ethnicity and age was taken from the 1990 MARS file—a special tabulation of people by age, race, sex, and Hispanic origin. However, to be consistent with the way race is categorized by the OMB’s Directive 15, the MARS file allocates all persons identifying as “other race alone” or multiracial to a specific race. After confirming that population totals by county (across all ages) were consistent between the MARS file and STF2A, we calculated the number of “other race alone” or multiracial people who had been added to each racial/ethnic group in each county by subtracting the number who were reported in STF2A for the corresponding group. We then derived the share of each racial/ethnic group in the MARS file (across all ages) that was made up of “other race alone” or multiracial people and applied it to estimate the number of people by race/ethnicity and age group exclusive of “other race alone” or multiracial people and the total number of “other race alone” or multiracial people in each age group.

For the 1990 city-level estimates, all data were from STF1, which provided counts of the total population for the six broad racial/ethnic groups detailed in the Atlas but not counts by age. Rather, age counts were only available for people by single race alone (including those of Hispanic origin) as well as for all people of Hispanic origin combined. To estimate the number of people by race/ethnicity and age for the six broad racial/ethnic groups that are detailed in the Atlas, we first calculated the share of each single race alone group that was Hispanic based on the overall population (across all ages). We then applied it 16 to the population counts by age and race alone to generate an initial estimate of the number of Hispanic and non-Hispanic people in each age/race alone category. This initial estimate was multiplied an adjustment factor (specific to each age group) to ensure that the sum of the estimated number of Hispanic people across the race alone categories within each age group equated to the “actual” number of Hispanic origin by age as reported in STF1. Finally, an Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) procedure was applied to ensure that our final estimate of the number people by race/ethnicity and age was consistent with the total population by race/ethnicity (across all ages) and total population by age group (across all racial/ethnic categories) as reported in STF1. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Data for 2017 represents a 2013-2017 average.

Diversity index

Summary: The diversity score is a measure of the racial/ethnic diversity of residents based on six major racial/ethnic groups (White, Black, Latino, Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American, and Mixed/other race). The maximum diversity score (1.79) would occur if each group were evenly represented in the region. Data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. a 2013-2017). 

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Summary Files; GeoLytics, Inc., 1980, 1990, and 2000 Long Form in 2010 Boundaries.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The formula used to calculate the diversity score was drawn from a 2004 report by John Iceland of the University of Maryland, The Multigroup Entropy Index (Also Known as Theil’s H or the Information Theory Index), available at: https://www.census.gov/hhes/www/housing/housing_patterns/multigroup_entropy.pdf. In that report, the measure is referred to as the “entropy score” and its derivation can be found on page 7. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups are non-Hispanic.
  • Data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.
  • The maximum diversity score (1.79) would occur if each group were evenly represented in the region.

Median age

Summary: The median age of the population. Data for 2010 and 2017 represent five-year averages (e.g. a 2013-2017).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The median age was calculated by race/ethnicity, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. See the methodology page for other relevant notes. It was estimated using each respondent's age birth quarter (i.e., January-March, April-June, July-September, October-December). See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups are non-Hispanic.
  • Data for 2010 and 2017 represent 2006-2010 and 2013-2017 averages, respectively.