Commute Time

Summary: Average travel time to work in minutes, one-way, for workers age 16 or older who work outside of home. Data for 2010 and 2019 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2015-2019).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1990 and 2000 5% samples, 2010 and 2019 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All workers ages 16 and older who work outside of home.

Methods: The commute time among workers age 16 or older who work outside of home was calculated by race/ethnicity, gender, nativity, ancestry, commute mode and poverty level for each year and geography. Private vehicles include cars, trucks, and motorcycles; public transportation includes buses, streetcars, subways/light rails, railroads, taxicabs, and ferryboats; walk or bike includes bicycles, walking, and other modes. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Workers are defined as people who reported working during the week prior to the survey (and they had to have worked outside of home to be included in the universe).
  • Data for 2010 and 2019 represent 2006-2010 and 2015-2019 averages, respectively.

Housing Burden

Summary: The share of owner- and renter-occupied households that are cost-burdened (spending more than 30 percent of income on housing costs) and "severely" cost-burdened (more than 50 percent). Data for 2010 and 2019 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2015-2019).

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 and 2019 American Community Survey 5-year Summary Files; GeoLytics, Inc., 2000 Long Form in 2010 Boundaries; Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1990 and 2000 5% samples, 2010 and 2019 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: Occupied households with housing costs, excluding non-traditional owner-occupied households (e.g. multi-unit structures and trailers).

Methods: The number and percentage of burdened and severely burdened households was calculated by tenure (owner vs. renter), race/ethnicity, gender, nativity, ancestry and poverty level for each year and geography. Housing costs for renters include contract rent as well as utilities while housing costs for owners includes most costs of owning a home such as mortgage, insurance, utilities, real estate taxes and other costs. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • No data is available for homeowners in 2000.
  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Demographic characteristics are based on those of the householder.
  • Housing costs are based on the month the survey was conducted.
  • Data for 2000 is based on a survey that year but reflects income from the year prior, while data for 2010 and 2019 represent 2006-2010 and 2015-2019 averages, respectively.
  • No data are reported for geographies in the map breakdown if based on fewer than 100 households.

Car Access

Summary: The percentage of households with no vehicle. Data for 2010 and 2019 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2015-2019).

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 1990 and 2000 5% samples, 2010 and 2019 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All households.

Methods: The percentage of households with no vehicle was calculated by race/ethnicity, gender, nativity, and ancestry for each year and geography. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • Data for 2010 and 2019 represent 2006-2010 and 2015-2019 averages, respectively.

Air pollution

Summary: Index of exposure to air toxics for cancer and non-cancer risk (combined and separately). Values range from 1 (lowest risk) to 100 (highest risk) on a national scale based on the distribution across census tracts nationwide. For example, a value of 65 for Latinos in a given region suggests that the average pollution exposure for Latinos in that region is equivalent to the census tract that ranks at the 65th percentile nationally in pollution exposure (i.e. has more exposure than 64 percent of U.S. tracts but less exposure than 35 percent of tracts).

Data Source(s): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999, 2011 and 2014 National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA); U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Decennial Census Summary File 3, 2010 and 2017 American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Summary File.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The air pollution exposure index was calculated by race/ethnicity, source, and poverty status for each year and geography. Indicator values for 2000 are based on the 1999 NATA and the 2000 Census summary file, values for 2010 are based on the 2011 NATA and the 2010 ACS 5-year summary file, and values for 2017 are based on the 2014 NATA and the 2017 ACS 5-year summary file. The NATA is only released every three years, and 2014 was the latest version available at the time of the last update of the air pollution indicator. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • The index value is based on percentile ranking each risk measure across all census tracts in the U.S. and taking the average ranking for each Atlas geography and demographic group.
  • The NATA includes Diesel Particulate Matter exposure in the non-cancer risk estimates but not in the cancer risk estimates (despite being a known carcinogen).
  • Data for 2000 are based on the 1999 NATA and the 2000 Census summary file.
  • Data for 2010 are based on the 2011 NATA and the 2010 ACS 5-year summary file.
  • Data for 2017 are based on the 2014 NATA and the 2017 ACS 5-year summary file.

Neighborhood Poverty

Summary: The percentage of the population living in high-poverty neighborhoods, defined as census tracts with a poverty rate of 30 percent or higher. Data for 2010 and 2019 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2015-2019).

Data Source(s): U.S. Census Bureau, 2010 and 2019 American Community Survey 5-year Summary File; Geolytics, Inc., 1990 and 2000 Long Form in 2010 Boundaries.

Universe: All people.

Methods: The percentage of people living in high-poverty neighborhoods was calculated by race/ethnicity for each year and geography. The census tract geography changes with each decennial census, which can be problematic for analyzing changes in neighborhood poverty over time. In order to ensure a consistent geographic basis for our calculations, we used data from GeoLytics, Inc. to derive neighborhood poverty estimates for 1990 and 2000. While this data originates from the 1990 and 2000 Census summary files, it has been “re-shaped” to be expressed in 2010 tract boundaries, which is the geographic basis of the 2010 Census and the ACS summary file in years 2010 and later.

Notes:

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • High poverty neighborhoods are those with poverty rates of at least 30 percent.
  • Data for 2010 and 2019 represent 2006-2010 and 2015-2019 averages, respectively.